The aviation sector has been relatively free of major environmentally driven regulations in past, because the sector is considered a key contributor to driving the global economy and the only mode of rapid trans-national travel on offer to customers. However airport development has not kept pace with significant increases in aviation activity in India.
As per EIA Notification, 2006, airport projects are included under Category A.
The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), which oversees the level and direction of effort involved in addressing the environmental impact of the sector, also deals with the emissions from aircrafts. India being one of the member states of ICAO, implements the resolution on environmental policies and practices adopted by ICAO through Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA), under Ministry of Civil Aviation, GOI.
The negative impacts of airports and aviation include land acquisition, noise, air pollution, climate change, water use, and effects on the social structures of local communities.
It is very difficult to reduce the air pollution impacts from aircraft except through more efficient operations and technology. To minimize impacts on noise levels, promoting research and development into new low noise engine and airframe technologies are underway. Noise from aviation may be also be reduced by putting strict regulatory constraints on the amount of noise that can be generated by aircrafts and on the flight paths to be followed, refusing planning permission where noise levels exceed 66 dB(A) Leq at daytime and 57 dB(A) Leq at night time and making technical adjustments to thrusts, angle of flight decent/ take-off, speed of aircraft accent etc.